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What are the Five Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

What are the Five Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

Cancer is something we all must deal with, unfortunately. Whether it is a loved one, a spouse, or even ourselves, cancer can strike and we must take notice and start to do something about it with treatments etc. We at Z Urology deal with a specific type of cancer quite often. That is prostate cancer, and it is actually quite common.

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer affects the prostate glands of men. Prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths for men in the United States.

The prostate is a small organ that lies below the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum (part of the large intestine). In men, it is normal for the size of the prostate to increase with age. In younger men, it is about the size of a walnut. The prostate makes a milky fluid, which is a part of semen. This fluid feeds the sperm.

There are two types of growths in the prostate:

  • Benign growths: Non-cancerous growths and rarely a threat to life like benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Malignant growths: These are cancerous growths that can be life-threatening.

Prostate cancer starts in the prostate gland and may spread to other organs.

What Causes Prostate Cancer?

The exact cause of prostate cancer is primarily unknown. One in three men older than 50 has some cancer cells in the prostate. Luckily, eight out of ten tumors are found to be small and harmless after biopsy. Although the reason for prostate cancer is unknown, there are many risk factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer:

  • Lack of exercise
  • Obesity
  • Over 55 years of age (peak age 65-74)
  • Ethnicity: More common in African Americans as compared to Caucasians
  • Genetic/family history
  • High fat, unhealthy diet
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Alcohol intake
  • Hormonal causes


What are the Five Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer rarely produces symptoms in its early stages. However, few signs can help in detecting prostate cancer. Five potential warning signs of prostate cancer are:

  1. Bone pain (due to spreading)
  2. Symptoms from compression of the spine
  3. Painful urination or ejaculation
  4. Sudden erectile dysfunction (trouble in getting an erection)
  5. Blood in urine or semen


What are Other Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

Other symptoms of prostate cancer can be:

  • Weight loss
  • Frequent urination (particularly at night)
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Weak urine flow
  • Dull pain in the lower pelvic area
  • Pain in the lower back, hips, or thighs
  • Loss of appetite
  • Anemia
  • Pain and edema in the legs and feet
  • Neurologic deficit (an altered function of a body area)
  • Loss of bowel control


How is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?

Screening asymptomatic men helps identify early prostate cancer.

Screening is recommended in men:

  • Who are between 55 and 69 years of age
  • Who are African American
  • Who have a family history of prostate cancer

Screening methods include:

  • A digital rectal examination that helps to find prostate problems
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): Increased PSA levels in the blood can sometimes indicate prostate cancer.
  • Definite diagnosis is based on the biopsy of the prostate tissue.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging studies and imaging tests may be used to assess the distant spread (metastasis).

How is Prostate Cancer Treated?

The treatment plan for prostate cancer depends on the following factors:

  • Age and health
  • Risk category
  • Life expectancy
  • The stage and grade of cancer

Treatment choices for prostate cancer involve:

  • Surveillance
  • Active surveillance: Monitoring cancer closely by carrying out PSA and DRE examination
    • Watchful waiting: Relies mainly on the changing symptoms in men
  • Localized therapy
    • Surgery involves the removal of the prostate gland (prostatectomy)
    • Radiation therapy
    • Cryotherapy is the use of very cold temperatures to freeze and kill the cancerous cells
    • Focal therapy
  • Drug therapies that spread throughout the body to destroy cancer cells involve:
    • Hormonal therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Immunotherapy

If you feel you are in need of a urologist in South Florida to aid in helping deal with prostate cancer issues this article highlighted, then contact Z Urology for a group that is dedicated to delivering world-class expertise in urology, along with an unwavering commitment to their patients. The three locations to choose from are located in Fort Lauderdale, Coral Springs, and Pompano Beach.

You can go to the website directly and set up an appointment or you can call 954-714-8200. Either way, you contact, you will be setting up to see the leading urologist office in all of South Florida. With an extremely talented and professional staff of doctors and more, you are in truly good hands with the doctors and nurses at Z Urology. Z Urology is your leader in urological care. Go ahead and call now!

Know the Early Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

Know the Early Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

In most cases, prostate cancer symptoms are not apparent in the early stages. Symptoms of prostate cancer may be different for each person, and any one of these symptoms may be caused by other conditions. As a result, routine screenings are recommended in the form of digital rectal exams and prostate-specific androgen (PSA) tests.

Early Warning Signs of Prostate Cancer

Due to the proximity of the prostate gland to the bladder and urethra, prostate cancer is typically accompanied by a variety of urinary symptoms, especially in the early stages. Depending on the size and location, a tumor may press on and constrict one’s urethra, inhibiting the flow of urine. Some early prostate cancer signs include:

  • Burning or pain during urination
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Difficulty urinating, or trouble starting & stopping urination
  • Frequent urges to urinate at night
  • Decreased flow or velocity of the urine stream
  • Blood in seme
  • Blood in urine (hematuria)
  • Difficulty getting an erection (erectile dysfunction)
  • Painful ejaculation 

Prostate cancer may spread and form tumors in nearby organs or bones. If the cancer spreads to the spine, it may press on the spinal nerves. Signs of metastatic prostate cancer may include:

  • Swelling in legs or pelvic area
  • Numbness or pain in the hips, legs or feet
  • Bone pain that doesn’t go away, or leads to fractures 

Symptoms of prostate cancer often differ from patient to patient. The most common first sign of recurrent prostate cancer is a rise in the PSA level in the blood, making regular PSA tests all the more important in measuring the progress of treatment and checking for signs of recurrence. It is important to report new signs or symptoms to your doctor.

The Prostate Specific Antigen Test

A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures the level of the PSA in the blood. The prostate gland produces PSA. PSA is a protein that at elevated levels can be a sign of prostate cancer. A high PSA reading may also indicate noncancerous conditions such as inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis) and enlargement of the prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Both of these issues we at Z Urology are experienced to deal with.

In the past, a PSA reading of 4 ng/mL and below was considered normal. Men with a reading above 4 ng/mL were considered likely to have prostate cancer and would have a biopsy to confirm the cancer’s presence.

According to the National Cancer Institute, research has found that men with prostate cancer can test with a low PSA level, while men without prostate cancer can test at high levels. Only one in four men with an elevated PSA level actually has prostate cancer. However, an increase in PSA level over time may indicate a prostate tumor and should be monitored closely.

The American Cancer Society recommends that men make an informed decision with their doctor about whether to be tested for prostate cancer. Typically the first test is around age 50. Men with one or more risk factors for prostate cancer should consult with their physician about whether to start routine screening earlier.

Understanding when symptoms are a sign of something serious and either diagnosing the disease or confirming a previous diagnosis require expertise from specialists trained and experienced in treating prostate cancer.

We are Z Urology. We provide state-of-the-art urologic care in the South Florida area with a focus on both male and female urology. Our practice specializes in all urologic procedures, specifically, minimally invasive methods. Our three locations to choose from are located in Fort Lauderdale, Coral Springs and Pompano Beach.

We at “Z” specialize in bladder issues, erectile dysfunction (ED), prostate issues, urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, stone disease, male infertility, pyeloplasty, Peyronie’s disease, and ureteral reimplantation.